Published Studies

While you may not have heard about it until recently, ortho-K and myopia control has been recognized and studied for many years. Both doctors and patients should be interested in the safety and effectiveness of any treatment.  The studies below describe the research that has gone into understanding myopia and how is can be treated, prevented from progressing and even temporarily reversed.

Myopia Prevalence and Health Implications

Vitale S, Sperduto RD, Ferris FL 3rd. (2009) Increased prevalence of myopia in the United States between 1971-1972 and 1999-2004. (FULL TEXT) Arch Ophthalmol. 2009 Dec;127(12):1632-9

Donald O. Mutti, John R. Hayes, G. Lynn Mitchell, Lisa A. Jones, Melvin L. Moeschberger, Susan A. Cotter, Robert N. Kleinstein, Ruth E. Manny, J. Daniel Twelker, Karla Zadnik for the CLEERE Study Group.(2007) Refractive Error, Axial Length, and Relative Peripheral Refractive Error before and after the Onset of Myopia. FULL TEXT) Investigative Ophthalmology and Visual Science. 2007;48:2510-2519.

Hyman L, Gwiazda J, Hussein M, Norton TT, et al. (2005). Relationship of age, sex, and ethnicity with myopia progression and axial elongation in the correction of myopia evaluation trial. (COMET)(FULL TEXT) Arch Ophthalmol. 123: 977-87

Seang-Mei Saw, Gus Gazzard, Edwin Chan Shih-Yen, Wei-Han Chua. (2005) Myopia and associated pathological complications. (FULL TEXT) Ophthalmic Physiol Opt. 25(5): 381-91 DOI: 10.1111/j.1475-1313.2005.00298.x

Kempen JH, Mitchell P, Lee KE, Tielsch JM, Broman AT, Taylor HR, Ikram MK, Congdon NG, O’Colmain BJ; Eye Diseases Prevalence Research Group. (2004) The prevalence of refractive errors among adults in the United States, Western Europe, and Australia. (FULL TEXT) Arch Ophthalmol. 2004 Apr;122(4):495-505


Jeffrey J. Walline. (2012) Myopia Control with Corneal Reshaping Contact Lenses. (FULL TEXT)Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. VOL 53 no. 11 PG 7086 doi: 10.1167/iovs.12-10996

Pauline Cho and Sin-Wan Cheung. (2012) Retardation of Myopia in Orthokeratology (ROMIO) Study: a 2-year randomized clinical trial. (FULL TEXT) Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. Oct 11, 2012 Vol. 53 no. 11, doi: 10.1167/iovs.12-10565

S. Barry Eiden, Robert L. Davis, Edward S. Bennett, and Julie O. DeKinder. (2009) The SMART Study: Background, Rationale, and Baseline Results (FULL TEXT) Contact Lens Spectrum October 2009

Walline JJ, Jones LA, Sinnott LT. (2009) Corneal reshaping and myopia progression. (ABSTRACT) Br J Ophthalmol. 93(9): 1181-5

Cho P, Cheung SW, Edwards M. (2005) The longitudinal orthokeratology research in children (LORIC) in Hong Kong: a pilot study on refractive changes and myopic control. (ABSTRACT) Curr Eye Res.30(1): 71-80

Jeffrey J. Walline, Marjorie J. Rah, Lisa A. Jones. (2004) The Children’s Overnight Orthokeratology Investigation (COOKI) Pilot Study (FULL TEXT) Optom Vis Sci. 2004 Jun;81(6):407-13

Contact Lenses

Nicola S. Anstice, John R. Phillips (2011) Effect of Dual-Focus Soft Contact Lens Wear on Axial Myopia Progression in Children (ABSTRACT) pdf download of full text Ophthalmology Volume 118, Issue 6, June 2011, Pages 1152-1161 doi:10.1016/j.ophtha.2010.10.035

Blacker, Adam; Mitchell, G Lynn; Bullimore, Mark A.; Long, Bill; Barr, Joseph T.; Dillehay, Sally M.; Bergenske, Peter; Donshik, Peter; Secor, Glenda; Yoakum, John; Chalmers, Robin L. (2009) Myopia Progression During Three Years of Soft Contact Lens Wear. (FULL TEXT) Optom Vis Sci. October 2009 – Volume 86 – Issue 10 – pp 1150-1153 doi:10.1097/OPX.0b013e3181bab365

Aller TA, Wildsoet C. (2008) Bifocal soft contact lenses as a possible myopia control treatment: a case report involving identical twins. (ABSTRACT) Clin Exp Optom. 91(4): 394-9

Jeffrey J. Walline, OD, PhD; Lisa A. Jones, PhD; Donald O. Mutti, OD, PhD; Karla Zadnik, OD, PhD, (2004) A Randomized Trial of the Effects of Rigid Contact Lenses on Myopia Progression. (FULL TEXT) Arch Ophthalmol Vol 122, Dec 2004;122:1760-1766


David A. Berntsen, Loraine T. Sinnott, Donald O. Mutti and Karla Zadnik. (2011 ) A Randomized Trial using Progressive Addition Lenses to Evaluate Theories of Myopia Progression in Children with a High Lag of Accommodation . (ABSTRACT) Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science Published online before print December 28, 2011, doi: 10.1167/iovs.11-7769

Jane E. Gwiazda. (2011) Progressive Addition Lenses versus Single Vision Lenses for Slowing Progression of Myopia in Children with High Accommodative Lag and Near Esophoria. (FULL TEXT)Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science April 2011, vol. 52 no. 5 pp 2749-2757 iovs.10-6631 doi: 10.1167/iovs.10-6631

Jane Gwiazda, Leslie Hyman, Mohamed Hussein, Donald Everett, Thomas T. Norton, Daniel Kurtz, M. Cristina Leske, Ruth Manny, Wendy Marsh-Tootle, Mitch Scheiman, and the COMET Group (2003). A randomized clinical trial of progressive addition lenses versus single vision lenses on the progression of myopia in children. (FULL TEXT) Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 44: 1492-500.

Chung K, Mohidin N, O’Leary DJ (2002). Undercorrection of myopia enhances rather than inhibits myopia progression. (ABSTRACT) Vision Res. 42: 2555-9


Y-T Fang, Y-J Chou, C Pu, P-J Lin, T-L Liu, N Huang and P Chou. (2013) Prescription of atropine eye drops among children diagnosed with myopia in Taiwan from 2000 to 2007: a nationwide study.(ABSTRACT) Eye 4 January 2013 doi:10.1038/eye.2012.279

Audrey Chia, Wei-Han Chua, Yin-Bun Cheung, Wan-Ling Wong, Anushia Lingham, Allan Fong, Donald Tan. (2011) Atropine for the Treatment of Childhood Myopia: Safety and Efficacy of 0.5%, 0.1%, and 0.01% Doses (Atropine for the Treatment of Myopia 2). (FULL TEXT) Ophthalmology published online 03 October 2011 doi:10.1016/j.ophtha.2011.07.031

Paul Lu and Jackie Chen. (2010) Retarding Progression of Myopia with Seasonal Modification of Topical Atropine. (FULL TEXT) Journal of Ophthalmic & Vision Research. April; 5(2):75–81

Chua WH, Balakrishnan V, Tan D, Chan YH. (2003) Efficacy results from the Atropine in the Treatment Of Myopia (ATOM) study. (ABSTRACT) Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 2003;44; ARVO E-Abstract 3119.

Yung-Feng Shih, Chien-Hsiung Chen, Ai-Chuan Chou, Tzyy-Chang Ho, Luke L.-K. Lin, Por-Tying Hung. (1999) Effects of Different Concentrations of Atropine on Controlling Myopia in Myopic Children.(ABSTRACT) Journal of Ocular Pharmacology and Therapeutics Volume: 15 Issue 1: January 30, 2009

Menu Title